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Teaching should ensure that 'scientific enquiry' is taught through contexts taken from the sections on 'life processes and living things', 'materials and their properties' and 'physical processes'.
1. Pupils should be taught:
a. that the life processes common to humans and other animals include nutrition, movement, growth and reproduction
b. that the life processes common to plants include growth, nutrition and reproduction
c. to make links between life processes in familiar animals and plants and the environments in which they are found
2. Pupils should be taught:
a. about the functions and care of teeth
b. about the need for food for activity and growth, and about the importance of an adequate and varied diet for health
c. that the heart acts as a pump to circulate the blood through vessels around the body, including through the lungs
d. about the effect of exercise and rest on pulse rate
e. that humans and some other animals have skeletons and muscles to support and protect their bodies and to help them to move
Growth and reproduction
f. about the main stages of the human life cycle
g. about the effects on the human body of tobacco, alcohol and other drugs, and how these relate to their personal health
h. about the importance of exercise for good health
3. Pupils should be taught:
a. the effect of light, air, water and temperature on plant growth
b. the role of the leaf in producing new material for growth
c. that the root anchors the plant, and that water and minerals are taken in through the root and transported through the stem to other parts of the plant
d. about the parts of the flower [for example, stigma, stamen, petal, sepal] and their role in the life cycle of flowering plants, including pollination, seed formation, seed dispersal and germination
4. Pupils should be taught:
a. to make and use keys
b. how locally occurring animals and plants can be identified and assigned to groups
c. that the variety of plants and animals makes it important to identify them and assign them to groups
5. Pupils should be taught:
a. about ways in which living things and the environment need protection
b. about the different plants and animals found in different habitats
c. how animals and plants in two different habitats are suited to their environment
d. to use food chains to show feeding relationships in a habitat
e. about how nearly all food chains start with a green plant
f. that micro-organisms are living organisms that are often too small to be seen, and that they may be beneficial [for example, in the breakdown of waste, in making bread] or harmful [for example, in causing disease, in causing food to go mouldy]
Pupils could use a database or spreadsheet to analyse data about types of food in school lunches.
Details of structure do not need to be taught.
Pupils could use video or CD-ROM to see things that cannot be directly observed.
Pupils could use a branching database to develop and use keys.
Pupils could use video or CD-ROM to compare non-local habitats.
Pupils could use simulation software to show changes in the populations of micro-organisms in different conditions.
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